Abstract: New energy vehicles represent the most advanced development direction of the automotive industry. As the power component of new energy vehicles, motors replace traditional engines as the main body of electric vehicles, converting electrical energy into mechanical energy for new energy vehicles to start. The performance of the drive motor directly affects the performance of new energy vehicles, and is an important basis for the development prospects of new energy vehicles. This article starts with the application of various motors in new energy vehicles, and analyzes the advantages, disadvantages and usage of various types of motors.
Key words: motor; new energy vehicle; permanent magnet motor
introduction: Compared with traditional internal combustion engine vehicles, the biggest highlight of new energy vehicles is that they have changed the way of energy driving, using clean and pollution-free electricity to drive vehicles. In the development process of new energy vehicles, with the continuous improvement of power system technology It is not only used in the engine of new energy vehicles, but also in a wider range of auto parts. Among the motors used in new energy vehicles, the drive motor system, the chassis motor system and the component motor system are the most common systems, and are also the focus of this paper's introduction and research.
1. Application of motors in new energy vehicles (1) Application of motor in engine A feature that distinguishes new energy vehicles from traditional diesel locomotives is the use of clean electricity for driving. The fuel used in traditional vehicles is a non-renewable resource, and the fuel will produce a large amount of harmful gases during the combustion process, which will endanger the atmospheric environment and cause environmental pollution such as acid rain, atmospheric holes, and haze. Vehicles using new energy can effectively improve the ecological environment and provide a green travel experience. At present, my country's new energy vehicles are mainly hybrid energy vehicles, which use clean energy such as ethanol as the power source, and use electric motors instead of traditional fuel engines to drive, achieving the characteristics of efficient, fast and environmentally friendly driving. In the application of the engine, the motor completely replaces the driving function of the internal combustion engine, and is not limited by the installation of the internal combustion engine. It can be placed in different positions according to different types of new energy vehicles, and the clean electric energy can be used to replace the traditional thermal energy to drive the car.
(2) Application of motor in chassis The convenient installation of the motor makes it possible to play a wider role in the modules outside the drive system. First, the motor in the chassis can help the car to steer through the power assist and chassis steering device. Second, the car motor can effectively improve the car. Rental of anti-lock braking systems. In the chassis, the traditional steering system is controlled by the battery in the internal combustion vehicle, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive and has poor control effect. In the new energy vehicle, in order to maintain the simplicity of installation and maximize the system power, the steering control is directly performed by the vehicle motor. , the micro-control system in the new energy vehicle directly manages the torque and power supply during the output period of the motor, so as to manage the power of the vehicle when driving and steering, and directly control the steering of the vehicle chassis. The anti-lock braking system of the chassis is also the main application of the motor in the chassis system. The anti-lock braking signal is transmitted by the sensor placed on the wheel and managed by the system of the car intelligently. The motor system can effectively provide high-quality power for the anti-lock braking system, so as to detect the status of the vehicle wheels in real time, and timely feedback it to the corresponding response components of the new energy vehicle and the vehicle control system to ensure the health of the vehicle.
(3) Application of motors in auto parts The development of the motor system in new energy vehicles has made it more and more widely used, and various traditional manually controlled components in new energy vehicles have also begun to become intelligent and controlled by a complete electric drive device. Common components include electric rearview mirrors, electric window regulators, electric door locks and other components.
2. Application of motor drive system in new energy vehicles (1) Requirements for the motor drive system of new energy vehicles New energy vehicles require the motor drive system to provide passenger comfort, environmental adaptability and charging endurance in addition to meeting normal driving needs. Therefore, compared with ordinary industrial motors, new energy motors require better performance to match. Features provided by new energy vehicles. First, the reliability should be high. In the application of electric motors in new energy vehicles, long-term working conditions and various emergencies require automobile motors to have better stability and good shock resistance, which can be used in different road conditions and work. state to ensure the safety of the use of new energy vehicles. The second is mass and volume. In order to ensure the driving speed and the expansion space in the car, the motor required by new energy vehicles has the characteristics of light weight and small volume. It is necessary to ensure the speed of the motor and try to choose the volume that meets the use standards of new energy vehicles and has a convenient shape. Motors installed in new energy vehicles. The motor casing is usually made of aluminum alloy, which not only ensures the strength of the motor casing, but also greatly reduces the weight of the motor casing. And reduce the volume of the motor, expand the interior space, and improve driving comfort. The third is efficiency and power density. New energy vehicles use electric power for driving and control. It is necessary to reduce power loss and improve the performance of electric power under the guarantee of a wide speed, so as to ensure that one charge can travel a long distance and avoid multiple charging. , affecting driving efficiency. Fourth, the instantaneous power is large. In the driving conditions of new energy vehicles, there are often some requirements for climbing, loading and short-term acceleration, which requires the motor system in the new energy vehicle to have about four times the overload capacity to cope with the car. Various emergencies in driving. Other requirements include high environmental adaptability, low noise and vibration generated during work, high braking efficiency, and convenient recycling and maintenance.
(2) Permanent magnet synchronous motor drive system Permanent magnet synchronous motor is a motor with low loss and high efficiency, which is developing rapidly in the field of electric vehicles. The application of permanent magnet synchronous motor system in new energy vehicles is mainly divided into sinusoidal permanent magnet synchronous motor and rectangular wave brushless DC motor. Rectangular wave brushless DC motor is one of the most efficient motors of its kind. It has high output power and stable working conditions. It is suitable for most vehicle driving conditions, has a long battery life, and is free from electrical sparks and other factors in steering control. interference, excellent steering stability. It is not easily interfered by electromagnetic waves in long-term use, and has a long service life. However, the permanent magnet synchronous motor is prone to demagnetization during use, which affects the normal use of the motor. Moreover, the operation of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is complicated, and the cost of construction and maintenance is high, which affects its use in new energy vehicles.
(3) AC induction drive motor system The AC induction drive motor system is the most commonly used new energy vehicle drive system at present. Common electric vehicle drives are roughly divided into two types. One is centralized motor drive, which is low in cost and easy to control. The use of electric motors completely replaces the traditional internal combustion engine, but the disadvantages It is not easy to mass produce. The other is the AC induction motor, which is the most stable driving method in new energy vehicles. Most of the motors used are three-phase asynchronous motors. During the working process of the new energy drive system, the performance is stable, the maintenance cost is low, and the service life is longer than The traditional brushless DC motor is strong and is the most cost-effective motor system in the development of new energy vehicles. The disadvantage is that it uses a large amount of electricity and increases the driving cost, which cannot meet the needs of electric vehicles for long-term driving.
3. Conclusion With the gradual reduction of non-renewable resources and the pollution of the ecological environment, traditional internal combustion vehicles are destined to be eliminated. New energy vehicles are the future development direction of the automotive industry and the development hope of the automotive industry. We will strengthen the application of motor drive systems in new energy vehicles, continuously improve the performance of various motor systems, and make unremitting efforts to manufacture motors that are lightweight, high torque performance, long service life, safe and reliable.